The essence of the disease lies in the fact that in type 2 diabetes the pancreas is still intact and able to perform their functions, but the body can not absorb it produced insulin since the insulin receptors in the cells of the tissue damaged. What factors can trigger such a state?
The aging of the organism. With age, the ability to metabolize glucose is reduced. But some, it happens slowly and gradually, so the blood sugar level remains within the normal range. And others digestibility decline occurs rapidly, which leads to the development of hyperglycemia and diabetes type 2 metformin xr.
Genetic predisposition. Scientists have long known that in the development of the disease plays a special role heredity. The risk of diabetes increases significantly if the next of kin suffer from manifestations of this disease. Inherited by the two major defects, provoking the disease: it is the insensitivity of tissues to insulin action and glucose immunity cells of the pancreas.
Metabolic disorders, obesity. When overweight blood composition changes for the worse, increased cholesterol levels, which starts to be postponed to the walls of blood vessels. The formation of cholesterol plaques triggers the development of atherosclerosis, tissues and organs begin to suffer from a deficiency of oxygen nutrient substances. If test cells anoxia, worse they metabolize glucose and insulin, which ultimately ends persistent increase in blood sugar levels.
Excess carbohydrates in the diet. Regular consumption of foods containing refined carbohydrates (sweet, flour) adversely affects the function of the pancreas, leading to its depletion and damage to the insulin receptors in the cells, tissues and organs.
Additional factors contributing to the development of Type II diabetes are bad habits (alcohol, smoking), overeating, lack of exercise, some diseases (hypertension). The disease usually progresses slowly, however, you must know the basic symptoms to promptly seek medical attention.
Since the lack of insulin in type 2 diabetes is not absolute but relative, a sick person can not realize for a long time about the disease and to write off some of the symptoms of feeling unwell. At the initial stage of metabolic disorders is not very pronounced, and often people with excess weight did not even notice the weight loss, since it increases the appetite. But over time, the state of health is deteriorating, there is weakness and other typical symptoms:
constant thirst and dry mouth;
the allocation of the excess volume of urine (both during the day and at night);
reinforced, "wolf" appetite;
rapid loss or weight gain;
unexplained weakness, lethargy;
poor healing of the skin lesions.
As the progression of disease symptoms become more pronounced. The patient noted decreased performance, refers to the urologist with complaints of polyuria, or a dermatologist and gynecologist on the skin or vaginal itching. These symptoms joins the increased dryness of the skin, hair loss, anemia.
Sometimes, before the correct diagnosis takes several years, during which time the patient may develop serious complications associated with ulcerative lesions of the legs, or a progressive decline in vision. Furthermore, long, asymptomatic diabetes can lead to serious complications such as:
leg defeat of vessels,
Therefore, it is important early diagnosis of the disease and the need for screening. That is preventive surveys and studies of blood sugar among people with no visible symptoms of the disease.
To confirm the diagnosis of suspected type 2 diabetes need to conduct laboratory studies of blood. The blood of the patient passes twice, first in the morning (fasting) and at 2 hours after a meal. If the blood sugar level exceeds the figure of 7.8 mmol / liter, experts say the diagnosis confirmed.
Analysis of urine for sugar is used much less frequently, as its level in urine is not always correspond to the number of blood glucose. In addition, sugar in the urine may appear for a different reason, and to testify about the diseases of the urinary system.
After confirming the diagnosis the doctor selects the regimen individually and advises that you can eat with type 2 diabetes and what changes need to be made in the diet.
Of great importance is the adjustment of diet. Dieting in the initial stages of diabetes to normalize carbohydrate metabolism, lose weight and reduce glucose production in the liver level. If we add to this active lifestyle and giving up bad habits, it is possible to avoid the rapid progression of the disease for a long time and live a full life.
To increase should be approached strictly individual exercise. Many patients with a similar diagnosis of overweight and related diseases, so they first recommend moderate-intensity aerobic load: swimming, walking, lasting 30-40 minutes per day. In the future, physical activity gradually increased, which helps to reduce body weight and lower blood sugar levels.