The thyroid gland is related to the endocrine glands like the hypothalamus, pituitary, parathyroid (parathyroid) gland, adrenal glands, an island of the pancreas, gonads - ovaries in women and testes in men.
The thyroid gland - a small organ located in the neck, front and sides of the trachea, just below the thyroid cartilage, and consists of dvuhdoley, connected by an isthmus. Normally, the thyroid gland is almost palpable synthroid and alcohol.
Thyroid hormones are necessary for protein synthesis and secretion of growth hormone; they contribute to the utilization of glucose by cells, stimulate the heart, the respiratory center, enhance fat metabolism and so on. d. How to treat thyroid disease folk remedies, see here.
The activity of the thyroid gland is adjusted as follows. When the body needs metabolic enhancement for one reason or another, the signal of this goes to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is synthesized by the so-called thyroid-stimulating hormone-releasing factor, which is getting into the pituitary gland, it stimulates the production of it thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroid-stimulating hormone activates the thyroid activity and increases the synthesis of its "personal" (thyroid) hormones - thyroxine, or tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Most of thyroid hormones - T3 and T4 - is bound in the blood in an inactive state, in conjunction with certain proteins. Only when the "liberation" of these proteins, hormones become active.
These complex mechanisms are required to reside in blood as active thyroid hormones, as required by the body at the moment.The thyroid gland also produces the hormone calcitonin. Its main action - reducing high blood levels of calcium.
Normally this body we can not see and is not detectable. In first-degree increase in the thyroid gland is clearly palpable, but invisible to the eye. When second-degree increase in iron well palpable and visible to the eye when swallowing.
When third-degree increase in the thyroid gland can see even the person far from medicine; it looks like a "thick neck", but can not greatly disturb the patient. In fourth-degree increase in thyroid goiter dramatically changes the contours of the neck.
In the fifth degree goiter becomes large, sometimes gigantic sizes. Outside view of the patient's attention is drawn to; people can torture shortness of breath, feeling of heaviness, tightness in the chest, feeling of a foreign body; goiter may interfere with the functioning of blood vessels, nerves and internal organs.
Ultrasound is not the first method of examination that the doctor prescribes for each patient. But if the patient showed an increase in body, the doctor usually appoints thyroid ultrasound. Thyroid volume in this case is calculated as follows: it is calculated by measuring the size of each three major thyroid lobe.
Antibodies - a substance that the immune system to combat produces antigens. Against a specific antigen are well-defined antibodies, so their presence in the blood leads to the conclusion that with which it is "enemy" fighting body. Sometimes, antibodies formed in the body during illness, remain forever. In other cases - for example, in autoimmune diseases - are identified in the blood of certain antibodies against the body's own antigens, which can be based on an accurate diagnosis.
If you want to confirm the nature of autoimmune thyroid disease, it is used to determine the level in the blood of antibodies to the cells - antithyroid antibodies, or antibodies to thyroglobulin.
Perhaps there is no modern medicine, which would have been applied ultrasound - ultrasound. Ultrasound method is harmless and has no contraindications. According to the results of ultrasound can determine the size and shape of many organs, altered areas and fluid in the pleural or peritoneal cavity, kidney stones and gall bladder.
If you suspect that the majority of diseases thyroid ultrasound is mainly used to determine that the thyroid node is (or is not) cyst. Usually require other, more complex diagnostic methods.
This study is based on the thyroid's ability to capture iodine I131. In normal thyroid function iodine absorption of 6-18% after 2 hours, 8 - 24% after 4 hours and 14-40% after 24 hours. When thyroid function reduced the absorption of radioactive iodine is reduced. You must know that the same results can be, and if the patient is taking medications that contain iodine or bromine or iodine simply oiled skin. The study was conducted through a half or two months after the abolition of such drugs.
Scintigraphy - thyroid scan using radioactive iodine or technetium. When performing thyroid scintigraphy with technetium, then is introduced into the vein hands liquid containing radioactive technetium drug - substances which, as iodine accumulates in the thyroid gland. Because of this with the help of devices and determine the size of the functional activity of the thyroid gland. Functionally inactive components - referred to as "cold" - recorded on the scans as rare strokes. Accumulation I131v are reduced. the accumulation of I131 strengthened, and they are registered as a densely shaded areas on the scan of the nodes - In the functionally active - the "hot". The dose of radiation This test is small.
Thermography - registration of infrared radiation, allowing more confident than scintigraphy, suspected malignancy site: cancer cells have a more active metabolism and, consequently, a higher temperature than that of benign nodes.
The symptoms of any disease caused by changes in the function of the affected organ and (or) changes in the body itself. Malfunction of the thyroid gland may occur in two forms: hypothyroidism - the reduction of its functions and, respectively, levels of thyroid hormones in the blood, and hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism) - increase the level of thyroid hormones.
Sometimes thyroid disorders occur without any noticeable change in its level of hormones. Changing the thyroid gland itself is usually expressed in the formation of goitre - enlarged glands. Goitre may be diffuse (with a uniform increase in cancer) or hub - to form in her individual seals.
Goitre may be associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, but sometimes the thyroid gland increases in order to produce the required amount of hormones, in other words - to prostate function remained normal.It should be emphasized that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism - no disease, and thyroid function (more precisely - the whole organism) at a given time.