Bulimia nervosa - a disease which is based on the neuro-psychiatric disorder, manifested in the uncontrolled consumption of food, focus on food, calories, weight. The patient suffers from bouts of insatiable hunger, use the means for weight loss, take laxatives, causing vomiting. Bulimiki different low self-esteem, feelings of guilt, excessive self-criticism, have a distorted view of their own weight. In severe stages bulimia leads to sharp fluctuations of weight (5 to 10 kg up and down), parotid gland swelling, chronic irritation of the throat, chronic fatigue and muscle pain, tooth loss.
The term "bulimia" is derived from Greek roots «bovus» (bull) and "limos" (famine). Literally - "bull hunger." Once this disease is called bulimia. Bulimia is characterized pathologically enhanced feeling of hunger (sometimes accompanied by weakness and pain in the abdomen), which is accompanied by a lack of satiety when eating (polyphagia - gluttony). Bulimia is a result of organic or functional disorders of the central nervous system (hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, epilepsy, tumors, traumatic brain injury) or mental illness (schizophrenia, psychopathy, obsessive-compulsive disorder) amitriptyline. Also bulimia may develop as a result of high blood insulin.
As eating disorders bulimia began to consider only in the twentieth century. In recent years, the incidence of bulimia, the vast majority of women, continues to grow. It is believed that the incidence of this disorder is social and ethnic roots.
Bulimia - a form of addiction (obsession) in relation to food. Another extreme form of obsessive-compulsive disorder related to food is anorexia.
Most often, bulimia, not associated with organic disorders, which has psychological character arises in the case where the use of food for the human factor becomes emotional state correction. At the same time the patient is unconsciously trying using a change of consciousness by means of overeating to get away from the objective reality in subjectively assessed, unpleasant for him reality. During the outbreak of negative emotions (anger, rage, anger, fear, uncertainty, and others.), Man turns to food as a way to get positive emotions, "seize" trouble oust bad emotions into the subconscious. Since physiologically eating is effectively connected with the receipt of a positive sense of taste, as well as the production of endorphins (hormones of happiness), there is a situational fixation: ate - enjoyed. Man is increasingly resorting to this method of avoiding problems in the future, he is trying to prolong the pleasant sensation, increasing the time of food intake and the amount of food consumed. Over time, a person loses the sense of taste when eating and concentrate on its volume, fullness of the stomach. Physiologically, blood flow is concentrated in the digestive organs, and nervous activity deteriorates psychologically same interests and attention shifted towards food needs.
This way the psychological care of the real problems is dangerous is attractive for its simplicity and accessibility. After all, it is always possible to eat tasty, irrespective of the personal qualities, appearance, the standard of living - food is available. For individuals who are prone to finding easy ways to solve the psychological problems, dependence on food becomes a natural choice. Bulimia - psychophysical relationship, because it has not only psychological underpinnings, but it also contains the basis for the biological instinct of satisfying hunger.
Biological dependence develops when impaired as a result of regular overeating slim appetite control mechanism. Regulation of hunger is no longer based on biological factors (the content of carbohydrates in the blood, stomach fullness) and becomes subjective. Hunger does not appear when a person needs food, and sometimes immediately after a meal. Thus, if the original bulimia eating when not feel hungry, then in the course of the disease, he begins to feel an irresistible desire to eat all the time - there is a biological dependence on food.
Causes of bulimia are divided into physiological and psychological.
Physiological causes associated with organic lesions of the food center of the cerebral cortex, metabolic disorders (insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome), hormonal disorders (hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency).
In the vast majority of cases in clinical practice we have to deal with bulimia, which has psychological causes.
Specialists noted that bulimia often develops in persons belonging to affluent families, with a penchant for pretension and ambition of family units. In such a family, children often develop an inferiority complex, fear does not justify the hopes to bring, to disgrace the family.
Initially, people suffering from bulimia appear normal, but are prone to increased demands for himself, loneliness, depressive states. Over time, their life begins to center around food, society takes a back seat and bulemiki turn in on themselves even more by avoiding intercourse.
If anorexia is quite easy to identify in an objective malnourished persons, bulemiki often quite long retain a normal weight or are prone to its moderate increase. Bulimia is a need to follow to get rid of eaten by vomiting often causes excessive increase caloric intake (although almost half of the consumption of food has time to be acquired) and a sick man practically than are released. Bulemiki tend to maintain their secret obsession, only very close people can be devoted to it.
Most often, bulimia nervosa develops in young women (since 13 years). Peaks symptom severity in the age group of 15-16 years, 22-25 years and about 27-28 years. In addition, increasingly revealed mild forms of the disease in people of both sexes. Often, bulimia can be the consequence of long-term dieting. Man long to limit yourself to a delicious favorite food, breaks and indulges in all serious.
Among bulemikov themselves and their families often it is of the opinion that the problem of overeating - is a problem of lack of volitional qualities that the patient must simply abandon an effort of will to eat and stick to a strict diet. However, it is not. Bulimia is similar to drug addiction, drug acts only food. Independently patient can not break out of the vicious circle, with time it loses the feeling of satiety, and he had to increase the dose - increase the amount of food, meals are becoming more often comes to the fact that the patient is always something bites.
People with bulimia often prefer sweet and starchy foods. First, this food causes the most pleasure from eating and contributes to greater production of endorphins, and secondly, it is high in calories and contributes to a significant increase in blood sugar levels that somehow fills bulemika.
However, the patient is often aware that he is eating too much, often feels guilty for his gluttony. A new negative emotions cause hunger pangs - a vicious circle. After the attack, the majority of gluttony bulimia have a desire to get rid of the absorbed, so as not to gain weight. The easiest way to induce vomiting, also resorted to the use of laxatives, enemas do. As a rule, there are attempts to regulate weight through diets, food restrictions.
As a result of bulimia it takes the form of a ring: overeating, self-cleaning by means of vomiting, laxatives and enemas, followed by a period of strict diet and a new breakdown.
Generally, few bulimia represent how occurs digestion, and does not know that vomiting after a meal does not lead to the complete return of food consumed almost half eaten remains in the body and goes into the intestine, and laxative leads to fluid loss, but not to decrease digestibility of calories.
Moreover, the regular cleaning procedures are not safe, is likely to disrupt water and salt balance, irritation of the mucous membranes of the esophagus, pharynx. People regularly practicing enema, risk to earn proctology disorders. Severe dehydration can result in death.
Bulimia nervosa requires an integrated approach - patients not only need treatment by a gastroenterologist, but also qualified psychotherapeutic help. Without correction of mental health problems that led to the disease, cure is not possible.